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Use of English


Read the following text, choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A,B,C or D on ANWSER SHEET 1(10 POINTS)

The outbreak of swine flu that was first detected in Mexico was declared a global epidemic on June 11,2009. It is the first worldwide epidemic  1  by the World Health Organization in 41 years.

The heighttened alter  2   an emergency meeting with flu experts in Geneva that assembled after a sharp rise in casses in Australia, and rising   3   in Britain, Japan, Chile and elsewhere.

But the epidemic is “  4   ”in severity. According to Margaret Chan, the organization’s director general,  5 the overwhelming majiority of patients experiencing only mild symptoms and a full recovery, ofent in the   6   of any medical treatment.

The outbreak came to global  7  in late April 2009, when Mexican authorities noted an usually large number of hospitalization and deaths  8  heathy adults. As much of Mexico Cityshut down at the height of a panic,cases began to  9   the southwestern States and around the world.

In the United States, new cases seemed to fade  10  warmer weather arrived.But in the late Sempteber 2009, officials reported there was  11  flu activity in almost every stat and that virtually all the   12  tested are the new swine flu, also known as (A)H1N1, not seasonal flu. In the U.S., it has   13  more than one million people, and caused more than 600deaths and more than 6,000 hospitalizations.

Federal heath officials  14  Tamifllu for children from the national stookpile and began   15  orders from the states for the new swine flu vaccine.The new vaccine,which is different from the annual flu vaccine, is  16  ahead of expectations. More than three million doses were to be made available in early October 2009, though most of those   17  doses were of the FluMist nasal spray type, which is not   18  for pregnant women , people over 50 or those with breathing difficulties, heart disease or several other   19  . But it was still possible to vaccinate people in other high-risk groups,heath care workers,people   20  infants and heathy young people.













B .numbers





























A.stay up

B.crop up  

C.fill up

D.cover up




















































A.involved in

B.caring for

C.concerned with

D.warding off

Section Reading Comprehension

Part A

Directions:Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A,B,C,D.Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET1.(40 points )

Text 1

  The longest bull run in a century of art-market history ended on a dramatic note with a sale of 56 works by Damien Hirst, Beautiful Inside My Head Forever, at Sotheby’s n London on September 15th 2008. All but two pieces sold, fetching more than 70m, a record for a sale by a single artist.It was a last victory. As the auctioneer called out bids,in New York one of the oldest banks on Wall Street,Lehman Brothers,field for bankruptcy.

   The world art market had already been losing momentum for a while after rising bewilderingly since 2003. At its peak in 2007 it was worth some 65 billion,reckons Clare McAndrew, founder of Arts Economics, a research form-double the figure five years earlier. Since then it may have come down to 50 billion. But the market generates interest far beyond its size because it brings together great wealth,enormous egos,greed,passion and controvercy in a way matched by few other industies.

   In the weeks and moths that followed Mr.Hirst’s sale, spendng of any sort became deeply unfashionable. In the art world that mean collectors stayed away from gallaries and salerooms. Sales of contemporary art fell by two-thirds, and in the most overheated sector, they were down by nearly 90% in the year ti November 2008.Within weeks the world’s two biggest auction houses, Southeby’s and Christie’s, had to pay out nearly 200m in guarantees to clients who had placed works for sal with them.

   The curent downturn in the art market is the worst since the japanese stopped buying Impressionists at the end of 1989. This time experts reckon that prices are about 40% down on their peak on average, though some have been far more fluctuant.

But Edward Dolman, Christie’s chief executive, says: “I’m pretty confident we’re at the bottom.”

   What makes thid slump different from the last, he says, is that there are still buyers in the market. Almost everyone who was interviewed for this special report said that the biggest problem at the moment is not a lack of demand but a lack of good work to sell. The three Ds-death, debt and divorce still deliver works of art to the market. But anyone who does not have to sell is keeping away, waitong for confidence to return.

21.In the first paragraph, Damien Hirst’s sale was referred to as “a last victory” because           .

A. the art market had witnessed a succession of victories

B. the auctioneer finally got the two pieces at the highest bids

C.Beautiful Inside My Head Forever won over all masterpieces

D. it was successfully made just before the world financial crisis

22.By sayingspending of any sort became deeply unfashionable(Line1-2,Para.3), the author suggest that           .

A. collectors were no longer actively involved in art-market auctions

B. people stopped every kind of spending and stayed away from galleries

C. art collection as a fashion had lost its appeal to a great extent

D. works of art in general had gone out of fashion so they were not worth buying

23.Which of the following statement is NOT true?

A. Sales of contemporary art fell dramatically from 2007 to 2008.

B. The art market surpassed many other industries in momentum.

C. The art market generally went downward in various ways.

D. Some art dealers were awaiting better chances to come.

24.The three Ds. Mentioned in he last paragraph are            .

A. auction houses’favorities

B. contemporary trends

C.factors promoting artwork circulation

D.styles representing impressionists

25.The most appropriate title for this text could be            .

A. Fluctuation of Art Prices

B. Up-to-date Art Auctions

C. Art Markeet in Decline

D. Shifted Interest in Arts

Text 2

  I was adressing a small gathering in a suburban Virginia living room ——  a women’s group that had invited men to jion them. Throughout the evening, one man had been particukarly talktive, frequently offering ideas and anecdotes, while his wife sat silently beside him on the couch toward the end of the evening. I commented that women frequently complain that their husbands don’t talk to them, this man quickly nodded in agreement. He gestureed toward his wife and said, she’s the talker in our family. The room burst into laughter, the man looked puzzled and hurt.It’s ture, he explained,when I come home from work I have nothing to say. If she didn’t keep the conversation going, we’d spend the whole evening in silence.

  This episode crystallizes the irony that although American men tend to talk more than women in public situations, they often talk less at home. And this pattern is wreaking havoc with marriage.

  The pattern was observed by political scientist andrew hacker in the late 1970s. sociologist Catherine Kohler riessman reports in new book divorce talk that most of the women she interviewed but only a few of the men gave lack of communication as the reason for their divorces. Given the current divorce rate of nearly 50 percent, that amounts to millions of cases in the U.S. every year a virtual epidomic of failed conversation.

  In our own research, complaint from women about their husbands most often focused not on tangible inequities such as having given up the chance for a career to accompany husband to his, or doing far more than their share of daily lifesupport work like cleaning,cooking and social arrangements,instead, they focused, as Hacker observed years before, that most wives want their husbands ti be, first andforemost, conversational patners, but few husbands share expectation of their wives.

  In short, the image that best represents the current crisis is the stereotypical cartoon cene of a man sitting at the breakfast table with a newspaper held up in front of his face, while a woman glares at the back of it, wanting to talk.

26.What is most wives’ main expectation of their huabands?

A. Talking to them

B. Trusting them

C.Supporting their careers

D. Sharing housework

27.Judging from the context, the phrasewreaking havoc(line3,Para2)s most probably means        .

A. generating motivation

B.exerting influence

C.causing damage

D.creating presuure

28.All of the following are ture EXCEPT       

A . men tend to talk more in public than women

B.nearly 50percent of rencent divorces are caused by failed conversation

C.women attach much importance to communication between couples

D.a female tends to be moree talktive at home than her spouse

29.Which if the following can best summarize the main idea of this text?

A.The moral decaying deserves more research by sociologists.

B.Marriage break-up stems from sex inequalities.

C.Husband and wife have different expectations from their marriage.

D. Conversational patterns between man and wife are different.

30.In the following part immediately after this text, the author will most probably focus on             

A. a vivid amount of the new book Divorce Talk

B.a detailed description of the stereotypical cartoon

C. other possible reasons for a high divorce rate in the U.S.

D.a brief introduction to the political scientist Andrew Hacker

Text 3

  Over the past decade, many companies had perfected the art of creating automatic behaviors---habits---among consumers. These habits have helped companies earn billions of dollars when customers cat snacks or wipe counters almost without thinking, often in response to a carefully designed set of daily cues.

  “There are fundamental public health problems, like dirty hands instead of a soap habit, that remain killers only because we can’t figure out how to change people’s habits.” Said Dr. Cuitis, the director of the Hygiene Center at the London School of Hygiene&Tropical Medecine,We wanted to learn from private industry how to create new behaviors that happen automatically.

  The companies that Dr.curtis turned to – Protecter&Gamble, Colgate-Palmolive and Unilever – had invested hundreds of millions of dollars finding the subtle cues in consumers’ lives that corporations could use to introduce new routines.

  If you look hard enough, you’ll find that many of the products we use every day – chewing gums, skin moisturizers, disinfeeting wipes, air fresheners, water purifiers, health snacks, teeth whiteners, fabric softeners, vitamins – are results of manufactured habits. A century ago, few people regularly brushed their teeth multiple times a day. Today, because of shrewd advertising and public health campaigns, many Americans habitually give their pearly whites a cavity-preventing scrub twice a day, often with Colgate,Crest or one of the other brands.

  A few decades ago, many people didn’t drinl water outside of a meal. Then beverage companies started bottling the production of far-off springs, and now office workers unthinkingly sip bottled water all day long. Chewing gum, once bought primarily by adolescent boys, is now fetured in commercials as a breath freshener and teeth cleaner for use after a meal. Skin moisturizers are advertised as part of morning beauty rituals, slipped in between hair brushing and putting on makeup.

  “Our products succeed when they become part of daily or weekly patterns,” said Carol Berning, a consumer psychologist who recently retired from Procter&Gamble, the company that sold $76 billion of Tide, Crest and other products last year, “Creating positive habits is a huge part of commercially viable.”

   Through experiments and observation,social scientists lke Dr.Berning have learned that there is power in trying certain behaviors to habitual cues through ruthless advertising. As this new science of habit has emerged, controversies have erupted when the tactics have been used to sell questionable beauty creams or unhealthy foods.

31.According to Dr.Cutis , habits like hand washing with soap           .

A. should be further cultivated

B. should be changed gradually

C. are deeply rooted in history

D. are basically private concerns

32.Bottled water, chewing gum and skin moisturizers are mentioned in Para5 so as to


A.    reveal their impact on people’s habits

B.     show the urgent need of daily necessities

C.     indicate their effect on people’s buying power

D.    manifest the significant role of good habits

34.From the text we know that some of consumers’ habits are developed due to      .

A. perfected art of products

B. automatic behavior reation

C. commercial promotions

D. scientific experiments

35.The author attitude toward the influence of advertisement on people’s habits is      .

A. indifferent


C. positive

D. biased

Text 4

Many Americans regard the jury system as a concrete expression of crucial democratic values, including the principles that all citizens who meet minimal qualifications of age and literacy are equally competent to serve on juries; that jurors should be selected randomly from a representative cross section of the community; that no citizen should be denied the right to be served on a jury on account of race, region, sex, or national origin; that defendants are entitled to trial by their peers; and that verdicts should represent the conscience of the community and not just the letter of the law. The jury is also said to be the best surviving example of direct rather than representative democracy. In a direct democracy, citizens take turns governing themselves, rather than electing representatives to govern for them.

But as recently as in 1968, jury selection procedures conflicted with these democratic ideals. In some states, for example, jury duty was limited to persons of supposedly superior intelligence, education and moral character. Although the Supreme Court of the United States had prohibited intentional racial discrimination in jury selection as early as the 1880 case of Strauder v. West Virginia, the practice of selecting so-called elite or blue-ribbon juries provided a convenient way around this and other antidiscrimination laws.

The system also failed to included women in juries until the mid-20th century. Although women first served on state juries in Utah in 1898, it was not until the 1940s that a majority of states made women eligible for jury duty. Even then several states automatically exempted women from jury duty unless they personally asked to have their names included on the jury list. This practice was justified by the claim that women were needed an home, and it kept juries unrepresentative of women through the 1960s.

In 1968, the Congress of the United States passed the Jury Selection and Service Act, ushering in a new area of democratic reforms for the jury. This law abolished special educational requirements for federal jurors and required them to be selected at random from a cross section of the entire community. In the landmark 1975 decision Taylor v. Louisiana, the Supreme Court extended the requirement that juries be representative of all parts of the community to the state level. The Taylor decision also declared sex discrimination in jury selection to be unconstitutional and ordered states to use the same procedures for selecting male and female jurors.

36. From the principles of the US jury system, we learn that

A. both literate and illiterate people can serve on juries

B. defendants are immune from trial by their peers

C. no age limit should be imposed for jury service

D. judgment should consider the opinion for the public

37. The practice of selecting so-called elite jurors prior to 1968 showed 

A. the inadequacy of antidiscrimination laws

B. the prevalent discrimination against certain races

C. the conflicting ideals in jury selection procedures

D. the arrogance common among the Supreme Court judges

38. Even in the 1960s, women were seldom on the jury list in some states because

A. they were automatically banned by state laws

B. they fell far short of the required qualifications

C. they were supposed to perform domestic duties

D. they tended to evade public engagement

39. After the Jury Selection and Selection Act was passed,

A. sex discrimination in jury selection was unconstitutional and had to be abolished

B. educational requirements became less rigid in the selection of federal jurors

C. jurors at the state level ought to be representative of  the entire community

D. states ought to conform to the federal court in reforming the jury system

40. In discussing the US jury system, the text centers on

A. its nature and problems

B. its characteristics and tradition

C. its problems and their solution

D. its tradition and development

Part B


Read the following text and decide whether each of the statements is true or false. Choose T if the statement is true or F if the statement is not true. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10points)

Copying Birds May Save Aircraft Fuel

BOTH Boeing and Airbus have trumpeted the efficiency of their newest aircraft, the 787 and A350 respectively. Their clever designs and lightweight composites certainly make a difference. But a group of researchers at Stanford University, led by Ilan Kroo, has suggested that airlines could take a more naturalistic approach to cutting jet-fuel use, and it would not require them to buy new aircraft.

The answer, says Dr Kroo, lies with birds. Since 1914, and a seminal paper by a German researcher called Carl Wieselsberger, scientists have known that birds flying in formation—a V-shape, echelon or otherwise—expend less energy. The air flowing over a bird’s wings curls upwards behind the wingtips, a phenomenon known as upwash. Other birds flying in the upwash experience reduced drag, and spend less energy propelling themselves. Peter Lissaman, an aeronautics expert who was formerly at Caltech and the University of Southern California, has suggested that a formation of 25 birds might enjoy a range increase of 71%.

When applied to aircraft, the principles are not substantially different. Dr Kroo and his team modelled what would happen if three passenger jets departing from Los Angeles, San Francisco and Las Vegas were to rendezvous over Utah, assume an inverted V-formation, occasionally swap places so all could have a turn in the most favourable positions, and proceed to London. They found that the aircraft consumed as much as 15% less fuel (with a concomitant reduction in carbon-dioxide output). Nitrogen-oxide emissions during the cruising portions of the flight fell by around a quarter.

There are, of course, kinks to be worked out. One consideration is safety, or at least the perception of it. Would passengers feel comfortable travelling in convoy? Dr Kroo points out that the aircraft could be separated by several nautical miles, and would not be in the unnervingly cosy groupings favoured by display teams like the Red Arrows. A passenger peering out of the window might not even see the other planes. Whether the separation distances involved would satisfy air-traffic-control regulations is another matter, although a working group at the International Civil Aviation Organisation has included the possibility of formation flying in a blueprint for new operational guidelines.

It remains to be seen how weather conditions affect the air flows that make formation flight more efficient. In zones of increased turbulence, the planes’ wakes will decay more quickly and the effect will diminish. Dr Kroo says this is one of the areas his team will investigate further. It might also be hard for airlines to co-ordinate the departure times and destinations of passenger aircraft in a way that would allow them to gain from formation flight. Cargo aircraft, in contrast, might be easier to reschedule, as might routine military flights.

As it happens, America’s armed forces are on the case already. Earlier this year the country’s Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency announced plans to pay Boeing to investigate formation flight, though the programme has yet to begin. There are reports that some military aircraft flew in formation when they were low on fuel during the second world war, but Dr Lissaman says they are apocryphal. “My father was an RAF pilot and my cousin the skipper of a Lancaster lost over Berlin,” he adds. So he should know.

41. Findings of the Stanford University researchers will promote the sales of new Boeing and Airbus aircraft

42. The upwash experience may save propelling energy as well as reducing resistance

43. Formation flight is more comfortable because passengers can not see the other plan

44. The role that weather plays in formation flight has not yet been clearly defined

45. It has been documented that during World War II, Americas armed forces once tried formation flight to save fuel

Section Translation

46. Directions

   In this section there is a text in English. Translate it into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET 2.(15 POINTS)


 “Sustainability” has become a popular word these days, but to Ted Ning, the concept will always have personal meaning. Having endured a painful period of unsustainability in his own life made it clear to him that sustainability-oriented values mest be expressed through everyday action and choice.

  Ning recalls spending a confusing year in the late 1990s selling insurance. He’d been through the dot-com boom and burst and, desperate for a job, signed on with a bounder agency.

  It didn’t go well. “It was a really bad move because that’s not my passion,” says Ning, whose delimma about the job translated, predictably, into a lack of sales. “I was miserable. I had so much anxiety that I would wake up in the middle of the night and stare at the celling. I had no money and needed the job.Everyone said,”Just wait, you’ll turn the cornor, give it some time.”

Section Writing

Part A


You have just come back from the U.S. as a member of a sino-American cultural exchange program. Write a letter to your American colleague to

1)      Express your thanks for his/her warm reception;

2)      Welcome him/her to visit China in due course.

About 100 words (10 points)

DO NOT sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use“Zhangwei” instead.

DO NOT write your address.

Part B


In this section, you are asked to write an essay based on the following chart in your writing, you should

1)      Interpret the chart and

2)      Give your comments

At lease 150words.(15 points)

Mobile-Phone Subscriptions

2000-2008    subscription number


Section I  Use of English

  Directions Read the following text. Choose the best words for each numbered black and mark A B C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. 10 points

  The Internet affords anonymity to its users a blessing to privacy and freedom of speech. But that very anonymity is also behind the explosion of cyber-crime that has 1 across the Web.

Can privacy be preserved 2 bringing safety and security to a world that seems increasingly 3

Last month Howard Schmidt the nation‘s cyber-czar offered the federal government a 4 to make the Web a safer place-a “voluntary trusted identity” system that would be the high-tech 5 of a physical key a fingerprint and a photo ID card all rolled 6 one. The system might use a smart identity card or a digital credential 7 to a specific computer .and would authenticate users at a range of online services.

  The idea is to 8 a federation of private online identity systems. User could 9 which system to join and only registered users whose identities have been authenticated could navigate those systems. The approach contrasts with one that would require an Internet driver‘s license 10 by the government.

  Google and Microsoft are among companies that already have these“single sign-on” systems that make it possible for users to 11 just once but use many different services.

  12 .the approach would create a “walled garden” n cyberspace with safe “neighborhoods” and bright “streetlights” to establish a sense of a 13 community.

  Mr. Schmidt described it as a “voluntary ecosystem” in which “individuals and organizations can complete online transactions with 14 trusting the identities of each other and the identities of the infrastructure 15 which the transaction runs”

  Still the administration‘s plan has 16 privacy rights activists. Some applaud the approach others are concerned. It seems clear that such a scheme is an initiative push toward what would 17 be a compulsory Internet “drive’s license” mentality.

  The plan has also been greeted with 18 by some computer security experts who worry that the “voluntary ecosystem” envisioned by Mr. Schmidt would still leave much of the Internet 19 .They argue that all Internet users should be 20 to register and identify themselves in the same way that drivers must be licensed to drive on public roads.

  1. A. swept               B. skipped          C. walked              D. ridden

  2. A. for                   B. within            C. while                 D. though

  3. A. careless            B. lawless           C. pointless                  D. helpless

  4. A. reason              B. reminder        C. compromise        D. proposal

  5. A. information   B. interference    C. entertainment    D. equivalent

  6. A. by                  B. into               C. from                      D. over

  7. A. linked              B. directed        C. chained              D. compared

  8. A. dismiss            B. discover        C. create                 D. improve

  9. A. recall               B. suggest          C. select                         D. realize

  10. A. relcased        B. issued            C. distributed             D. delivered

  11. A. carry on        B. linger on               C. set in                      D. log in

  12. A. In vain           B. In effect       C. In return                       D. In contrast

  13. A. trusted           B. modernized   C. thriving               D. competing

  14. A. caution          B. delight           C. confidence          D. patience

  15. A. on                  B. after                      C. beyond               D. across

  16. A. divided          B. disappointed C. protected            D. united

  17. A. frequestly      B. incidentally    C. occasionally      D. eventually

  18. A. skepticism     B. relerance    C. indifference      D. enthusiasm

  19. A.manageable   B.   defendable C.   vulnerable         D. invisible

  20. A. invited           B. appointed      C. allowed              D. forced

Section II Reading Comprehension

Part A

 DirectionsRead the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A B C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. 40points

                                Text 1

     Ruth Simmons joined Gold man Sachs’s board as an outside director in January  2000; a year later she became president of Brown University. For the rest of the decade she  apparently managed both roles without attracting much criticism. But by the end of  2009  Mr. Simmons  was under fire fire for having sat on Gold man’s compensation committee; how could she have let those enormous bonus payouts pass unremarked? By February the next year Ms. Simmons had left the board. The position was just taking up too much time, she said.

Outside director are supposed to serve as helpful, yet less biased, adisers on a fitm’s board. Having made their wealth and their reputations elsewhere, they presumably have enough independence to disagree with chief executive’s proposals. If the sky, and share price, is falling, outside directors should be able to give advice based on having weathered their own crises.

The researchers from Ohio University used a database that covered more than 10,000 firms and more than 64,000 different between 1989 and 2004. Then they simply checked which directors stayed from one proxy statement to the next. The most likely reason for departing aboard was age, so the researchers concentrated on those “surprise” disappearances by directors under the age of 70. They found that after a surprise departure, the probability that the company will subsequently have to restate earnings increases by nearly 20%. The likelihood of being named in a federal class-action lawsuit also increases, and the stock is likely to perform worse. The effect tended to be larger for larger firms. Although a correlation between them leaving and subsequent bad performance at the firm is suggestive, it does not mean that such directors are always jumping off a sinking ship. Often they “trade up,” leaving riskier, smaller firms for larger and more and more stable firms.

But the researchers believe that outside directors have an easier time of avoiding a blow to their reputations if they leave a firm before bad news breaks even if a review of history shows they were on the board at the time any wrongdoing occurred. Firms who want to keep their outside directors through tough times may have to create incentives. Otherwise outside directors will follow the example of Ms. Simmons once again very popular on campus.

21. According to Paragraph 1 Ms. Simmons was criticized for .

  [A]gaining excessive profits

  [B]failing to fulfill her duty

  [C]refusing to make compromises

  [D]leaving the board in tough times

22. We learn from Paragraph 2 that outside directors are supposed to be .

  [A]generous investors

  [B]unbiased executives

  [C]share price forecasters

  [D]independent advisers

23. According to the researchers from Ohio University after an outside director‘s surprise departure the firm is likely to .

  [A]become more stable

  [B]report increased earnings

  [C]do less well in the stock market

  [D]perform worse in lawsuits

24. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that outside directors .

  [A]may stay for the attractive offers from the firm

  [B]have often had records of wrongdoings in the firm

  [C]are accustomed to stress-free work in the firm

  [D]will decline incentives from the firm

25. The author‘s attitude toward the role of outside directors is .





Text 2

  Whatever happened to the death of newspaper A year ago the end seemed near. The recession threatened to remove the advertising and readers that had not already fled to the internet. Newspapers like the San Francisco Chronicle were chronicling their own doom. America‘s Federal Trade commission launched a round of talks about how to save newspapers. Should they become charitable corporations Should the state subsidize them It will hold another meeting soon. But the discussions now seem out of date.

  In much of the world there is the sign of crisis. German and Brazilian papers have shrugged off the recession. Even American newspapers which inhabit the most troubled come of the global industry have not only survived but often returned to profit. Not the 20% profit margins that were routine a few years ago but profit all the same.

  It has not been much fun. Many papers stayed afloat by pushing journalists overboard. The American Society of News Editors reckons that 13500 newsroom jobs have gone since 2007. Readers are paying more for slimmer products. Some papers even had the nerve to refuse delivery to distant suburbs. Yet these desperate measures have proved the right ones and sadly for many journalists they can be pushed further.

  Newspapers are becoming more balanced businesses with a healthier mix of revenues from readers and advertisers. American papers have long been highly unusual in their reliance on ads. Fully 87% of their revenues came from advertising in 2008 according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation Development OECD)。 In Japan the proportion is 35%. Not surprisingly Japanese newspapers are much more stable.

  The whirlwind that swept through newsrooms harmed everybody but much of the damage has been concentrated in areas where newspaper are least distinctive. Car and film reviewers have gone. So have science and general business reporters. Foreign bureaus have been savagely cut off. Newspapers are less complete as a result. But completeness is no longer a virtue in the newspaper business.

26. By saying “Newspapers like … their own doom” Lines 3-4 Para. 1), the author indicates that newspaper .

  [A]neglected the sign of crisis

  [B]failed to get state subsidies

  [C]were not charitable corporations

  [D]were in a desperate situation

27. Some newspapers refused delivery to distant suburbs probably because .

  [A]readers threatened to pay less

  [B]newspapers wanted to reduce costs

  [C]journalists reported little about these areas

[D]subscribers complained about slimmer products

28. Compared with their American counterparts Japanese newspapers are much more stable because they .

  [A]have more sources of revenue

  [B]have more balanced newsrooms

  [C]are less dependent on advertising

  [D]are less affected by readership

29. What can be inferred from the last paragraph about the current newspaper business

  [A]Distinctiveness is an essential feature of newspapers.

  [B]Completeness is to blame for the failure of newspaper.

  [C]Foreign bureaus play a crucial role in the newspaper business.

  [D]Readers have lost their interest in car and film reviews.

30. The most appropriate title for this text would be .

  [A]American Newspapers Struggling for Survival

  [B]American Newspapers Gone with the Wind

  [C]American Newspapers A Thriving Business

  [D]American Newspapers A Hopeless Story


Text 3

  We tend to think of the decades immediately following World War II as a time of prosperity and growthwith soldiers returning home by the millions, going off to college on the G. I. Bill and lining up at the marriage bureaus.

  But when it came to their housesit was a time of common sense and a belief that less could truly be more. During the Depression and the warAmericans had learned to live with lessand that restraintin combination with the postwar confidence in the future, made smallefficient housing positively stylish.

  Economic condition was only a stimulus for the trend toward efficient living. The phrase “less is more” was actually first popularized by a Germanthe architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe who like other people associated with the Bauhausa school of designemigrated to the United States before World War II

  and took up posts at American architecture schools. These designers came to exert enormous influence on the course of American architecture but none more so that Mies.

  Mies‘s signature phrase means that less decorationproperly organizedhas more impact that a lot. Elegance he believeddid not derive from abundance. Like other modern architectshe employed metalglass and laminated wood-materials that we take for granted today buy that in the 1940s symbolized the future. Mies’s sophisticated presentation masked the fact that the spaces he designed were small and efficient rather than big and often empty.

  The apartments in the elegant towers Mies built on Chicago‘s Lake Shore Drive for examplewere smaller-two-bedroom units under 1000 square feet-than those in their older neighbors along the city’s Gold Coast. But they were popular because of their airy glass wallsthe views they afforded and the elegance of the buildings‘ details and proportionsthe architectural equivalent of the abstract art so popular at the time.

  The trend toward “less” was not entirely foreign. In the 1930s Frank Lloyd Wright started building more modest and efficient houses-usually around 1200 square feet-than the spreading two-story ones he had designed in the 1890s and the early 20th century.

  The “Case Study Houses” commissioned from talented modern architects by California Arts Architecture magazine between 1945 and 1962 were yet another homegrown influence on the “less is more” trend. Aesthetic effect came from the landscape new materials and forthright detailing. In his Case Study House Ralph everyday life – few American families acquired helicopters though most eventually got clothes dryers – but his belief that self-sufficiency was both desirable and inevitable was widely shared.

31. The postwar American housing style largely reflected the Americans‘ .

  [A]prosperity and growth

  [B]efficiency and practicality

  [C]restraint and confidence

  [D]pride and faithfulness

32. Which of the following can be inferred from Paragraph 3 about Bauhaus

  [A]It was founded by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe.

  [B]Its designing concept was affected by World War II.

  [C]Most American architects used to be associated with it.

  [D]It had a great influence upon American architecture.

33. Mies held that elegance of architectural design .

  [A]was related to large space

  [B]was identified with emptiness

  [C]was not reliant on abundant decoration

  [D]was not associated with efficiency

34. What is true about the apartments Mies building Chicago‘s Lake Shore Drive

  [A]They ignored details and proportions.

  [B]They were built with materials popular at that time.

  [C]They were more spacious than neighboring buildings.

  [D]They shared some characteristics of abstract art.

35. What can we learn about the design of the “Case Study House”

  [A]Mechanical devices were widely used.

  [B]Natural scenes were taken into consideration

  [C]Details were sacrificed for the overall effect.

  [D]Eco-friendly materials were employed.


Text 4

  Will the European Union make it The question would have sounded strange not long ago. Now even the project‘s greatest cheerleaders talk of a continent facing a “Bermuda triangle” of debt population decline and lower growth.

  As well as those chronic problems the EU face an acute crisis in its economic core the 16 countries that use the single currency. Markets have lost faith that the euro zone‘s economies weaker or stronger will one day converge thanks to the discipline of sharing a single currency which denies uncompetitive members the quick fix of devaluation.

  Yet the debate about how to save Europe‘s single currency from disintegration is stuck. It is stuck because the euro zone’s dominant powers France and Germany agree on the need for greater harmonization within the euro zone but disagree about what to harmonies.

  Germany thinks the euro must be saved by stricter rules on borrow spending and competitiveness barked by quasi-automatic sanctions for governments that do not obey. These might include threats to freeze EU funds for poorer regions and EU mega-projects and even the suspension of a country‘s voting rights in EU ministerial councils. It insists that economic co-ordination should involve all 27 members of the EU club among whom there is a small majority for free-market liberalism and economic rigour in the inner core alone Germany fears a small majority favour French interference.

  A “southern” camp headed by French wants something different “European economic government” within an inner core of euro-zone members. Translated that means politicians intervening in monetary policy and a system of redistribution from richer to poorer members via cheaper borrowing for governments through common Eurobonds or complete fiscal transfers. Finally figures close to the France government have murmured curo-zone members should agree to some fiscal and social harmonization e.g. curbing competition in corporate-tax rates or labour costs.

  It is too soon to write off the EU. It remains the world‘s largest trading block. At its best the European project is remarkably liberal built around a single market of 27 rich and poor countries its internal borders are far more open to goods capital and labour than any comparable trading area. It is an ambitious attempt to blunt the sharpest edges of globalization and make capitalism benign.

36. The EU is faced with so many problems that .

  [A] it has more or less lost faith in markets

  [B] even its supporters begin to feel concerned

  [C] some of its member countries plan to abandon euro

  [D] it intends to deny the possibility of devaluation

37. The debate over the EU‘s single currency is stuck because the dominant powers .

  [A] are competing for the leading position

  [B] are busy handling their own crises

  [C] fail to reach an agreement on harmonization

  [D] disagree on the steps towards disintegration

38. To solve the euro problem Germany proposed that .

  [A] EU funds for poor regions be increased

  [B] stricter regulations be imposed

  [C] only core members be involved in economic co-ordination

  [D] voting rights of the EU members be guaranteed

39. The French proposal of handling the crisis implies that __ __.

  [A]poor countries are more likely to get funds

  [B]strict monetary policy will be applied to poor countries

  [C]loans will be readily available to rich countries

  [D]rich countries will basically control Eurobonds

40. Regarding the future of the EU the author seems to feel __ __.






Part B

Directions: Read the following text and answer the questions by finding information from the right column that corresponds to each of the marked details given in the left column, there are two exera choices in the right column. Mark your answers on  ANSWER SHEET 1.(10points)

Leading doctors today weigh in on the debate over the government’s role in promoting public health by demanding that ministers impose “fat taxes” on unhealthy food and introduce cigarette-style warnings to children about the dangers of a poor diet.

The demands follow comments made last week by the health secretary, Andrew Lansley, who insisted the government could not force people to make healthy choices and promised to free businesses from public health regulations.

But senior medical figures want to stop fast-food outlets opening near Schools, restrict advertising of products high in fat, salt or sugar, and limit sponsorship of sports events by fast-food producers such an McDonald’s.

They argue that government action is necessary to curb Britain’s addiction to unhealthy food and help halt spiraling rates of obesity, diabetes and heart disease professor Terence Stephenson, president of the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health, said that the consumption of unhealthy food should be seen to be just an damaging as smoking or excessive drinking.

   “Thirty years ago, it would have been inconceivable to have imagined a ban on smoking in the workplace or in pubs, and yet that is what we have now. Are we willing to be just as courageous in respect of obesity? I would suggest that we should be,” said the leader of the UK’s children’s doctors.

   Lansley has alarmed health campaigners by suggesting he wants industry rather than government to take the lead. He said that manufacturers of crisps and candies could play a central role in the Change4life campaign, the centerpiece of government efforts to boost healthy eating and fitness. He has also criticized the celebrity chef Jamie Oliver’s high-profile attempt to improve school lunches in England as an example of how “lecturing” people was not the best way to change their behaviour.

   Stephenson suggested potential restrictions could include banning TV advertisements for foods high in fat ,salt or sugar before 9 pm and limiting them on billboards or in cinemas. “If we were really bold, we might even begin to think of high-calorie fast food in the same way as cigarettes-by setting strict limits on advertising, product placement and sponsorship of sport events,” he said.

Such a move could affect firms such as McDonald’s, which sponsors the youth coaching scheme run by the Football Association. Fast-food chains should also stop offering “inducements” such as toys, cuddly animals and mobile phone credit to lure young customers, Stephenson said.

Professor Dinesh Bhugra, president of the Royal College of Psychiatrists, said: “If children are taught about the impact that food has on their growth, and that some things can harm, at least information is available up front.”

He also urged councils to impose “fast-foot-free zones” around schools and hospitals-areas within takeaways cannot open.

A Department of Health spokesperson said: “We need to create a new vision for public health where all of society works together to get healthy and live longer. This includes creating a new ‘responsibility deal’ with business, built on social responsibility, not state tegulation. Later this year, we will publish a white paper setting out exactly how we will achieve this.”

The food industry will be alarmed that such senior doctors back such radical moves, especially the call to use some of the tough tactics that have been deployed against smoking over the last decade.

A. “fat taxes” should be imposed on fast-food producers such as McDonald’s

41.Andrew Lansley held that

B. the government should be fast-food outlets in the neighborhood of schools.

42.Terence Stephenson agreed that

C. “lecturing” was an effective way to improve school lunches in England.

43.Jamie Oliver seemed to Believe that

D. cigarette-style warnings should be introduced children about the dangers of a poor diet.

44.Dinesh Bhugra suggested that

E. the producers of crisps and candies could Contribute significantly to the Change4Life Campaign

45.A Department of Health Spokesperson proposed that

F. parents should set good examples for the Children by keeping a healthy diet at home.

G. the government should strengthen the sense Of responsibility among businesses.

46. Direction In this section there is a text in English. Translate it into Chinese write your translation on ANSWER SHEET 2. 15points

  Who would have thought that globally the IT industry produces about the same volumes of greenhouse gases as the world‘s airlines do-rough 2 percent of all CO2 emissions

  Many everyday tasks take a surprising toll on the environment. A Google search can leak between 0.2 and 7.0 grams of CO2 depending on how many attempts are needed to get the “right” answer. To deliver results to its users quickly then Google has to maintain vast data centres round the world packed with powerful computers. While producing large quantities of CO2 these computers emit a great deal of heat so the centres need to be well air-conditioned which uses even more energy.

However Google and other big tech providers monitor their efficiency closely and make improvements. Monitoring is the first step on the road to reduction but there is much to be done and not just by big companies.

Section IV Writing

Part A

47. Directions:Suppose your cousin LI Ming has just been admitted to a university. write him/her a letter to:

(1)Congratulate him/her, and

(2)give him/her suggestions on how to get prepared for university life

You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2.

Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter, Use "zhang wei” instead

Do not write the address.(10 Points)

Part B

48. Directions:Write an essay based on the following chart. In you writing, you should

(1) interpret the chart and

(2) give your comments.

You shoul d write at least 150 words.

Write your essay on ANSWER SHEET2. (15 Points)

                 2008年         2009



Section 1 Use of Eninglish

  Directions :

  Millions of Americans and foreigners see GI.Joe as a mindless war toy ,the symbol of American military adventurism, but that’s not how it used to be .To the men and women who 1 )in World War II and the people they liberated ,the GI.was the 2) man grown into hero ,the pool farm kid torn away from his home ,the guy who 3) all the burdens of battle ,who slept in cold foxholes,who went without the 4) of food and shelter ,who stuck it out and drove back the Nazi reign of murder .this was not a volunteer soldier ,not someone well paid ,5) an average guy ,up 6 )the best trained ,best equipped ,fiercest ,most brutal enemies seen in centuries

  His name is not much.GI. is just a military abbreviation 7) Government Issue ,and it was on all of the article 8) to soldiers .And Joe? A common name for a guy who never 9) it to the top .Joe Blow ,Joe Magrac …a working class name.The United States has 10) had a president or vicepresident or secretary of state Joe

  GI .joe had a (11)career fighting German ,Japanese , and Korean troops . He appers as a character ,or a (12 ) of american personalities, in the 1945 movie The Story of GI. Joe, based on the last days of war correspondent Ernie Pyle. Some of the soldiers Pyle(13)portrayde themselves in the film. Pyle was famous for covering the (14)side of the warl, writing about the dirt-snow –and-mud soldiers, not how many miles were(15)or what towns were captured or liberated, His reports(16)the “willie” cartoons of famed Stars and Stripes artist Bill Maulden. Both men(17)the dirt and exhaustion of war, the (18)of civilization that the soldiers shared with each other and the civilians: coffee, tobacco, whiskey, shelter, sleep. (19)Egypt, France, and a dozen more countries, G.I. Joe was any American soldier,(20)the most important person in their lives

  1.[A] performed [B]served [C]rebelled [D]betrayed

  2.[A] actual [B]common [C]special [D]normal

  3.[A]bore [B]cased [C]removed [D]loaded

  4.[A]necessities [B]facilitice [C]commodities [D]propertoes

  5.[A]and [B]nor [C]but [D]hence

  6.[A]for [B]into [C] form [D]against

  7.[A]meaning [B]implying [C]symbolizing [D]claiming

  8.[A]handed out [B]turn over [C]brought back [D]passed down

  9.[A]pushed [B]got [C]made [D]managed

  10.[A]ever [B]never [C]either [D]neither

  11.[A]disguised [B]disturbed [C]disputed [D]distinguished

  12.[A]company [B]collection [C]community [D]colony

  13.[A]employed [B]appointed [C]interviewed [D]questioned

  14.[A]ethical [B]military [C]political [D]human

  15.[A]ruined [B]commuted [C]patrolled [D]gained

  16.[A]paralleled [B]counteracted [C]duplicated [D]contradicted

  17.[A]neglected [B]avoided [C]emphasized [D]admired

  18.[A]stages [B]illusions [C]fragments [D]advancea

  19.[A]With [B]To [C]Among [D]Beyond

  20.[A]on the contrary [B] by this means [C]from the outset [D]at that point

  Section II Resdiong Comprehension

  Part A


  Read the following four texts. answer the question after each text by choosing A,B,C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.(40 points)

Text 1

  Homework has never been terribly popular with students and even many parents, but in recent years it has been particularly scorned. School districts across the country, most recently Los Angeles Unified, are revising their thinking on his educational ritual. Unfortunately, L.A. Unified has produced an inflexible policy which mandates that with the exception of some advanced courses, homework may no longer count for more than 10% of a student’s academic grade

  This rule is meant to address the difficulty that students from impoverished or chaotic homes might have in completing their homework. But the policy is unclear and contradictory. Certainly, no homework should be assigned that students cannot do without expensive equipment. But if the district is essentially giving a pass to students who do not do their homework because of complicated family lives, it is going riskily close to the implication that standards need to be lowered for poor children

  District administrators say that homework will still be a pat of schooling: teachers are allowed to assign as much of it as they want. But with homework counting for no more than 10% of their grades, students can easily skip half their homework and see vey little difference on their report cards. Some students might do well on state tests without completing their homework, but what about the students who performed well on the tests and did their homework? It is quite possible that the homework helped. Yet rather than empowering teachers to find what works best for their students, the policy imposes a flat, across-the-board rule

  At the same time, the policy addresses none of the truly thorny questions about homework. If the district finds homework to be unimportant to its students’ academic achievement, it should move to reduce or eliminate the assignments, not make them count for almost nothing. Conversely, if homework does nothing to ensure that the homework students are not assigning more than they are willing to review and correct

  The homework rules should be put on hold while the school board, which is responsible for setting educational policy, looks into the matter and conducts public hearings. It is not too late for L.A. Unified to do homework right

  21.It is implied in paragraph 1 that nowadays homework_____

  [A] is receiving more criticism

  [B]is no longer an educational ritual

  [C]is not required for advanced courses

  [D]is gaining more preferences

  22.L.A.Unified has made the rule about homework mainly because poor students_____

  [A]tend to have moderate expectations for their education

  [B]have asked for a different educational standard

  [C]may have problems finishing their homework

  [D]have voiced their complaints about homework

  23.According to Paragraph 3,one problem with the policy is that it may____

  [A]discourage students from doing homework

  [B]result in students indifference to their report cards

  [C]undermine the authority of state tests

  [D]restrict teachers power in education

  24. As mentioned in Paragraph 4, a key question unanswered about homework is whether______. [A] it should be eliminated

  [B]it counts much in schooling

  [C]it places extra burdens on teachers

  [D]it is important for grades

  25.A suitable title for this text could be______

  [A]Wrong Interpretation of an Educational Policy

  [B]A Welcomed Policy for Poor Students

  [C]Thorny Questions about Homework

  [D]A Faulty Approach to Homework


  Pretty in pink: adult women do not rememer being so obsessed with the colour, yet it is pervasive in our young girls’ lives. Tt is not that pink is intrinsically bad, but it is such a tiny slice of the rainbow and, though it may celebrate girlhood in one way, it also repeatedly and firmly fuses girls’ identity to appearance. Then it presents that connection, even among two-year-olds, between girls as not only innocent but as evidence of innocence. Looking around, I despaired at the singular lack of imagination about girls’ lives and interests

  Girls’ attraction to pink may seem unavoidable, somehow encoded in their DNA, but according to Jo Paoletti, an associate professor of American Studies, it is not. Children were not colour-coded at all until the early 20th century: in the era before domestic washing machines all babies wore white as a practical matter, since the only way of getting clothes clean was to boil them. What’s more, both boys and girls wore what were thought of as gender-neutral dresses.When nursery colours were introduced, pink was actually considered the more masculine colour, a pastel version of red, which was associated with strength. Blue, with its intimations of the Virgin Mary, constancy and faithfulness, symbolised femininity. It was not until the mid-1980s, when amplifying age and sex differences became a dominant children’s marketing strategy, that pink fully came into its own, when it began to seem inherently attractive to girls, part of what defined them as female, at least for the first few critical years

  I had not realised how profoundly marketing trends dictated our perception of what is natural to kins, including our core beliefs about their psychological development. Take the toddler. I assumed that phase was something experts developed after years of research into children’s behaviour: wrong. Turns out, acdording to Daniel Cook, a historian of childhood consumerism, it was popularised as a marketing trick by clothing manufacrurers in the 1930s

  Trade publications counselled department stores that, in order to increase sales, they should create a “third stepping stone” between infant wear and older kids’ clothes. Tt was only after “toddler”became a common shoppers’ term that it evolved into a broadly accepted developmental stage. Splitting kids, or adults,into ever-tinier categories has proved a sure-fire way to boost profits. And one of the easiest ways to segment a market is to magnify gender differences – or invent them where they did not previously exist

  26.By saying "it is...the rainbow"(Line 3, Para.1)the author means pink______

  [A]should not be the sole representation of girlhood

  [B]should not be associated with girls innocence

  [C]cannot explain girls lack of imagination

  [D]cannot influence girls lives and interests

  27.According to Paragraph 2, which of the following is true of colours?

  [A]Colours are encoded in girls DNA

  [B]Blue used to be regarded as the colour for girls

  [C]Pink used to be a neutral colour in symbolising genders

  [D]White is prefered by babies

  28.The author suggests that our perception of childrens psychological development was much influenced by_____

  [A]the marketing of products for children

  [B]the observation of childrens nature

  [C]researches into childrens behavior

  [D]studies of childhood consumption

  29.We may learn from Paragraph 4 that department stores were advised to_____

  [A]focus on infant wear and older kids clothes

  [B]attach equal importance to different genders

  [C]classify consumers into smaller groups

  [D]create some common shoppers terms

  30.It can be concluded that girls attraction to pink seems to be____

  [A] clearly explained by their inborn tendency

  [B]fully understood by clothing manufacturers

  [C] mainly imposed by profit-driven businessmen

  [D]well interpreted by psychological experts






  AS the industry advances ,however,other suits may have an even greater impact.companies are unlikely to file many more patents for human DNA molecules-most are already patented or in the public domain .firms are now studying how genes intcract,looking for correlations that might be used to determine the causes of disease or predict a drug’s efficacy,companies are eager to win patents for ‘connecting the dits’,expaains hans sauer,alawyer for the BIO

  Their success may be determined by a suit related to this issue, brought by the Mayo Clinic, which the Supreme Court will hear in its next term. The BIO rtcently held a convention which included seddions to coach lawyers on the shifting landscape for patents. Each meeting was packed

  31.it canbe learned from paragraph I that the biotech companies would like-----

  A.their executives to be active

  B.judges to rule out gene patenting

  C.genes to be patcntablc

  D.the BIO to issue a warning

  32.those who are against gene patents believe that----

,   A.genetic tests are not reliable

  B.only man-made products are patentable

  C.patents on genes depend much on innovatiaon

  D.courts should restrict access to gene tic tests

  33.according to hans sauer ,companies are eager to win patents for----

  A.establishing disease comelations

  B.discovering gene interactions

  C.drawing pictures of genes

  D.identifying human DNA

  34.By saying “each meeting was packed”(line4,para6)the author means that -----

  A.the supreme court was authoritative

  B.the BIO was a powerful organization

  C.gene patenting was a great concern

  D.lawyers were keen to attend conventiongs

  35.generally speaking ,the author’s attitude toward gene patenting is----





Text 4

  The great recession may be over, but this era of high joblessness is probably beginning. Before it ends,

  it will likely change the life course and character of a generation of young adults. And ultimately, it is likely to reshape our politics,our culture, and the character of our society for years

  No one tries harder than the jobless to find silver linings in this national economic disaster. Many said that unemployment, while extremely painful, had improved them in some ways; they had become less materialistic and more financially prudent; they were more aware of the struggles of others. In limited respects, perhaps the recession will leave society better off. At the very least, it has awoken us from our national fever dream of easy riches and bigger houses, and put a necessary end to an era of reckless personal spending

  But for the most part, these benefits seem thin, uncertain, and far off. In The Moral Consequences of Economic Growth, the economic historian Benjamin Friedman argues that both inside and outside the U.S. ,lengthy periods of economic stagnation or decline have almost always left society more mean-spirited and less inclusive, and have usually stopped or reversed the advance of rights and freedoms. Anti-immigrant sentiment typically increases, as does conflict between races and classes

  Income inequality usually falls during a recession, but it has not shrunk in this one,. Indeed, this period of economic weakness may reinforce class divides, and decrease opportunities to cross them--- especially for young people. The research of Till Von Wachter, the economist in Columbia University, suggests that not all people graduating into a recession see their life chances dimmed: those with degrees from elite universities catch up fairly quickly to where they otherwise would have been if they had graduated in better times; it is the masses beneath them that are left behind

  In the internet age, it is particularly easy to see the resentment that has always been hidden winthin American society. More difficult, in the moment , is discerning precisely how these lean times are affecting society’s character. In many respects, the U.S. was more socially tolerant entering this resession than at any time in its history, and a variety of national polls on social conflict since then have shown mixed results. We will have to wait and see exactly how these hard times will reshape our social fabric. But they certainly it, and all the more so the longer they extend

  36.By saying “to find silver linings”(Line 1,Para.2)the author suggest that the jobless try to___

  [A]seek subsidies from the govemment

  [B]explore reasons for the unermployment

  [C]make profits from the troubled economy

  [D]look on the bright side of the recession

  37.According to Paragraph 2,the recession has made people_____

  [A]realize the national dream

  [B]struggle against each other

  [C]challenge their lifestyle

  [D]reconsider their lifestyle

  38.Benjamin Friedman believe that economic recessions may_____

  [A]impose a heavier burden on immigrants

  [B]bring out more evils of human nature

  [C]Promote the advance of rights and freedoms

  [D]ease conflicts between races and classes

  39.The research of Till Von Wachther suggests that in recession graduates from elite universities tend to _____

  [A]lag behind the others due to decreased opportunities

  [B]catch up quickly with experienced employees

  [C]see their life chances as dimmed as the others’

  [D]recover more quickly than the others

  40.The author thinks that the influence of hard times on society is____





  Part B


  Read the following text and answer the questions by finding information from the left column that corresponds to each of the marked details given in the right column. There are two extra choices in the right column. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEERT 1.(10 points)

  “Universal history, the history of what man has accomplished in this world, is at bottom the History of the Great Men who have worked here,” wrote the Victorian sage Thomas Carlyle. Well, not any more it is not

  Suddenly, Britain looks to have fallen out with its favourite historical form. This could be no more than a passing literary craze, but it also points to a broader truth about how we now approach the past: less concerned with learning from forefathers and more interested in feeling their pain. Today, we want empathy, not inspiration

  From the earliest days of the Renaissance, the writing of history meant recounting the exemplary lives of great men. In 1337, Petrarch began work on his rambling writing De Viris Illustribus – On Famous Men, highlighting the virtus (or virtue) of classical heroes. Petrarch celebrated their greatness in conquering fortune and rising to the top. This was the biographical tradition which Niccolo Machiavelli turned on its head. In The Prince, the championed cunning, ruthlessness, and boldness, rather than virtue, mercy and justice, as the skills of successful leaders

  Over time, the attributes of greatness shifted. The Romantics commemorated the leading painters and authors of their day, stressing the uniqueness of the artists personal experience rather than public glory. By contrast, the Victorian author Samual Smiles wrote Self-Help as a catalogue of the worthy lives of engineers , industrialists and explores . "The valuable examples which they furnish of the power of self-help, if patient purpose, resolute working and steadfast integrity, issuing in the formulation of truly noble and many character, exhibit,"wrote Smiles."what it is in the power of each to accomplish for himself"His biographies of James Walt, Richard Arkwright and Josiah Wedgwood were held up as beacons to guide the working man through his difficult life

  This was all a bit bourgeois for Thomas Carlyle, who focused his biographies on the truly heroic lives of Martin Luther, Oliver Cromwell and Napoleon Bonaparte. These epochal figures represented lives hard to imitate, but to be acknowledged as possessing higher authority than mere mortals

  Communist Manifesto. For them, history did nothing, it possessed no immense wealth nor waged battles:“It is man, real, living man who does all that” And history should be the story of the masses and their record of struggle. As such, it needed to appreciate the economic realities, the social contexts and power relations in which each epoch stood. For:“Men make their own history, but they do not make it just as they please; they do not make it under circumstances chosen by themselves, but under circumstances directly found, given and transmitted from the past

  This was the tradition which revolutionized our appreciation of the past. In place of Thomas Carlyle, Britain nurtured Christopher Hill, EP Thompson and Eric Hobsbawm. History from below stood alongside biographies of great men. Whole new realms of understanding — from gender to race to cultural studies — were opened up as scholars unpicked the multiplicity of lost societies. And it transformed public history too: downstairs became just as fascinating as upstairs


[A] emphasized the virtue of classical heroes

41. Petrarch

[B] highlighted the public glory of the leading artists

42. Niccolo Machiavellli

[C] focused on epochal figures whose lives were hard to imitate

43. Samuel Smiles

[D] opened up new realms of understanding the great men in history

44. Thomas Carlyle

[E] held that history should be the story of the masses and their record of struggle

45. Marx and Engels

[F] dismissed virtue as unnecessary for successful leaders


[G] depicted the worthy lives of engineer industrialists and explorers


  Section III Translation


  Translate the following text from English into Chinese.Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET2.(15 points)

  When people in developing countries worry about migration,they are usually concerned at the prospect of the best and brightest departure to Silicon Valley or to hospitals and universities in the developed world ,These are the kind of workers that countries like Britain ,Canada and Australia try to attract by using immigration rules that privilege college graduates

  Lots of studies have found that well-educated people from developing countries are particularly likely to emigrate .A big survey of Indian households in 2004 found that nearly 40%of emigrants had more than a high-school education,compared with around 3.3%of all Indians over the age of 25.This "brain drain "has long bothered policymakers in poor countries ,They fear that it hurts their economies ,depriving them of much-needed skilled workers who could have taught at their universities ,worked in their hospitals and come up with clever new products for their factories to make

  Section IV Writing

  Part A


  Suppose you have found something wrong with the electronic dictionary that you bought from an online store the other day ,Write an email to the customer service center to

  1)make a complaint and

  2)demand a prompt solution

  You should write about 100words on ANSERE SHEET 2

  Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter ,Use "zhang wei "instead

  48write an essay based on the following table .In your writing you should

  1)describe the table ,and

  2)give your comments

  You should write at least 150 words(15points)


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